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练英语、学梵语:Avalokiteśvara(觀世音菩薩)的来历(附梵语电影Adi Shankaracharya )

练英语、学梵语:Avalokiteśvara(觀世音菩薩)的来历

 

Avalokiteśvara

The name Avalokiteśvara is made of the following parts:

be made of ...造成(一般用于原材料显而易见的场合)

 

the verbal prefix ava, which means "down";

the verbal prefix动词性前缀

lokita, a past participle of the verb lok ("to notice, behold, observe"), here used in an active sense (an occasional irregularity of Sanskrit grammar);

past participle过去分词

lokita是动词lok的过去分词

lok作为动词,相当于英语中的:to notice, behold, observe

哈哈,大家复习一下look或许会会意一笑。

事实上,很多老外都把“过去分词”等同于“被动”。不然,这里不会加上这么一句:used in an active sense

我认为“过去分词”实际上表示和汉语中的“已经~”和“被~”类似的意思。也就是既可以表“主动的完成”,也可以表“被动”。

 

and finally īśvara, "lord", "ruler", "sovereign" or "master".

īśvara, Ishvara (Īśvara in IAST) is a philosophical concept in Hinduism, meaning controller or the Supreme controller[1] (i.e. God) in a theistic school of thought or the Supreme Being, or as an Ishta-deva of monistic thought.

IshvaraīśvaraIAST改写形式,相当于英语中的"lord", "ruler"

请注意shś的区别。

 

IASTThe International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration的缩写(取首字母)。

 

In accordance with sandhi (Sanskrit rules of sound combination), a+iśvara becomes eśvara.

根据梵语的发音规则,a+iśvara变形为eśvara

in accordance with adv....一致, 依照

sandhi[5sAndhi:]adj.连接音变的n.连接音变(san+dhi

san-表“同时”, Sanscrit中我们见到过:

Sanscrit[5sAnskrit]n.梵语adj.梵语的(San+scrit)

dhi-[他放置]

联想记忆:

bodhi[5bEudi]tree 菩提树(佛教的圣树,相传佛祖在此树下得道成佛)

 

Combined, the parts mean "lord who gazes down (at the world)".

组合在一起,大概意思就是:俯视大地的神。

 

The word loka ("world") is absent from the name, but the phrase is implied.[4]

be absent from v.缺席

 

It was initially thought that the Chinese mis-transliterated the word Avalokiteśvara as Avalokitasvara which explained why Xuanzang translated it as Guānzìzài (Ch. 觀自在) instead of Guānyīn (Ch. 觀音).

Xuanzang玄奘,玄藏 

唐代僧人,法相宗创始人,佛经翻译家、旅行家。俗姓陈,名  。洛州缑氏(今河南偃师)人。

幼年出家  玄奘家贫,父母早丧。13岁出家,20岁在成都受具足戒。曾游历各地,参访名师。先后从慧休、道深、道岳、法常、僧辩、玄会等学《摄大乘论》、《杂阿毗昙心论》、《成实论》、《俱舍论》以及《大般涅盘经》等经论,造诣日深。 

西行求法  通过多年来在各处讲筵所闻,他深感异说纷纭,无从获解。特别是当时摄论、地论两家关于法相之说各异,遂产生去印度求《瑜迦师地论》以会通一切的念头。贞观元年(627)玄奘结侣陈表,请允西行求法。但未获唐太宗批准。然而玄奘决心已定,乃“冒越宪章,私往天竺”,始自长安神邑,终于王舍新城,长途跋涉五万余里。

 

instead of adv.代替, 而不是...

玄奘大师把Avalokiteśvara翻译成“观自在”而不是“观音”。

 

However, according to recent research, the original form was indeed Avalokitasvara with the ending a-svara ("sound, noise"),

according to v.依照

 

which means "sound perceiver", literally "he who looks down upon sound" (i.e., the cries of sentient beings who need his help; a-svara can be glossed as ahr-svara, "sound of lamentation").[5]

lamentation[7lAmen5teiFEn]n.悲伤; 哀悼; 恸哭(lament+ation

lament[lE5ment]n.悲伤, 哀悼, 恸哭, 挽诗, 悼词vt.哀悼vi.悔恨, 悲叹(lam+ent

源自 lām [哀悼]

英语中也有一个lam

lam[lAm]v.鞭打, 潜逃

还有一个lame:

lame[leim]adj.跛足的, 僵痛的

lame前面加上一个f就成了flame

flame[fleim]n.火焰, 光辉, 光芒, 热情, 激情

 

强烈建议大家再听一听《Hand in Hand》,这里用到flame

everytime we give it all

we feel the flame eternally inside us

lift our hands up to the sky

the morning calm helps us to live in harmony

========================

 

This is the exact equivalent of the Chinese translation Guānyīn.

请把这个句子翻译成汉语。

 

This etymology was furthered in the Chinese by the tendency of some Chinese translators, notably Kumarajiva, to use the variant Guānshìyīn (Ch. 觀世音), literally "he who perceives the world's lamentations"

 

-- wherein lok was read as simultaneously meaning both "to look" and "world" (Skt. loka; Ch. , shì).[5]

simultaneously[sImEl5teInIEsly; (?@) saIm-]adv.同时地

simultaneous[7simEl5teinjEs]adj.同时的, 同时发生的

拉丁语 simul [与此同时]

instantaneous[7instEn5teinjEs]adj.即刻的, 瞬间的; 立刻做成的, 立即发生的

 

This name was later supplanted by the form containing the ending śvara, which does not occur in Sanskrit before the seventh century.

 

The original form Avalokitasvara already appears in Sanskrit fragments of the fifth century.[6]

 

The original meaning of the name fits the Buddhist understanding of the role of a bodhisattva.

 

The reinterpretation presenting him as an īśvara shows a strong influence of Hinduism, as the term īśvara was usually connected to the Hindu notion of Krishna (in Vaisnavism) or Śiva (in Śaivism) as the Supreme Lord, Creator and Ruler of the world.

Some attributes of such a god were transmitted to the bodhisattva, but the mainstream of those who venerated Avalokiteśvara upheld the Buddhist rejection of the doctrine of any creator god.[7]

 

An etymology of the Tibetan name Jänräsig (Jainraisig) is jän (eye), (continuity) and sig (to look).

Jänsigjän (eye), (continuity) and sig (to look).

This gives the meaning of one who always looks upon all beings (with the eye of compassion).[8]

 

 

 

 

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