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阅读理解:The sounds of English and the International Phonetic Alphabet(英语发音与国际音标)

 

阅读理解:The sounds of English and the International Phonetic Alphabet(英语发音与国际音标)

英语地址

The sounds of English and the International Phonetic Alphabet

© Tomasz P. Szynalski, Antimoon.com

This chart contains all the sounds (phonemes) used in the English language. For each sound, it gives:

·                         The symbol from the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), as used in phonetic transcriptions in modern dictionaries for English learners — that is, in A. C. Gimson’s phonemic system with a few additional symbols.

The chart represents British and American phonemes with one symbol. One symbol can mean two different phonemes in American and British English. See the footnotes for British-only and American-only symbols.

·                         Two English words which use the sound. The underline shows where the sound is heard.

·                         The links labeled Amer and Brit play sound recordings (Flash is required) where the words are pronounced in American and British English. The British version is given only where it is very different from the American version.

To print the chart, use the printable PDF version.

vowels

IPA

examples

listen

 

ʌ

cup, luck

Amer

 

ɑ:

arm, father

Amer / Brit

 

æ

cat, black

Amer

 

e

met, bed

Amer

1

ə

away, cinema

Amer

2

ɜ:ʳ

turn, learn

Amer / Brit

2

ɪ

hit, sitting

Amer

 

i:

see, heat

Amer

 

ɒ

hot, rock

Amer / Brit

3

ɔ:

call, four

Amer / Brit

4 5

ʊ

put, could

Amer

 

u:

blue, food

Amer

 

aɪ

five, eye

Amer

 

aʊ

now, out

Amer

 

eɪ

say, eight

Amer

 

oʊ

go, home

Amer

6

ɔɪ

boy, join

Amer

 

ʳ

where, air

Amer / Brit

1 7

ɪəʳ

near, here

Amer / Brit

7

ʊəʳ

pure, tourist

Amer / Brit

7

consonants

IPA

examples

listen

 

b

bad, lab

Amer

 

d

did, lady

Amer

 

f

find, if

Amer

 

g

give, flag

Amer

 

h

how, hello

Amer

 

j

yes, yellow

Amer

 

k

cat, back

Amer

 

l

leg, little

Amer

 

m

man, lemon

Amer

 

n

no, ten

Amer

 

ŋ

sing, finger

Amer

 

p

pet, map

Amer

 

r

red, try

Amer

8

s

sun, miss

Amer

 

ʃ

she, crash

Amer

 

t

tea, getting

Amer

9

tʃ

check, church

Amer

 

θ

think, both

Amer

 

ð

this, mother

Amer

 

v

voice, five

Amer

 

w

wet, window

Amer

 

z

zoo, lazy

Amer

 

ʒ

pleasure, vision

Amer

 

dʒ

just, large

Amer

 

1.                             1. Almost all dictionaries use the e symbol for the vowel in bed. The problem with this convention is that e in the IPA does not stand for the vowel in bed; it stands for a different vowel that is heard, for example, in the German word Seele. The “proper” symbol for the bed vowel is ɛ (do not confuse with ɜ:). The same goes for eə vs. ɛə.

2.                             2. In əʳ and ɜ:ʳ, the ʳ is not pronounced in BrE, unless the sound comes before a vowel (as in answering, answer it). In AmE, the ʳ is always pronounced, and the sounds are sometimes written as ɚ and ɝ.

3.                             3. In AmE, ɑ: and ɒ are one vowel, so calm and cot have the same vowel. In American transcriptions, hot is written as hɑ:t.

4.                             4. About 40% of Americans pronounce ɔ: the same way as ɑ:, so that caught and cot have the same vowel. See cot-caught merger.

5.                             5. In American transcriptions, ɔ: is often written as ɒ: (e.g. law = lɒ:), unless it is followed by r, in which case it remains an ɔ:.

6.                             6. In British transcriptions, oʊ is usually represented as əʊ. For some BrE speakers, oʊ is more appropriate (they use a rounded vowel) — for others, the proper symbol is əʊ. For American speakers, oʊ is usually more accurate.

7.                             7. In eəʳ ɪəʳ ʊəʳ, the r is not pronounced in BrE, unless the sound comes before a vowel (as in dearest, dear Ann). In AmE, the r is always pronounced, and the sounds are often written as er ɪr ʊr.

8.                             8. All dictionaries use the r symbol for the first sound in red. The problem with this convention is that r in the IPA does not stand for the British or American r; it stands for the “hard” r that is heard, for example, in the Spanish word rey or Italian vero. The “proper” symbol for the red consonant is ɹ.

9.                             9. In American English, t is often pronounced as a flap t, which sounds like d or (more accurately) like the quick, hard r heard e.g. in the Spanish word pero. For example: letter. Some dictionaries use the t ̬ symbol for the flap t.

special symbols

IPA

what it means

ˈ

The vertical line (ˈ) is used to show word stress. It is placed before the stressed syllable in a word. For example, /ˈkɒntrækt/ is pronounced like this, and /kənˈtrækt/ like that. Word stress is explained in our article about phonetic transcription.

ʳ

ʳ is not a sound — it is a short way of saying that an r is pronounced only in American English. For example, if you write that the pronunciation of bar is /bɑ:ʳ/, you mean that it is /bɑ:r/ in American English, and /bɑ:/ in British English.

However, in BrE, r will be heard if ʳ is followed by a vowel. For example, far gone is pronounced /ˈfɑ: ˈgɒn/ in BrE, but far out is pronounced /ˈfɑ: ˈraʊt/.

i

i is usually pronounced like a shorter version of i:, but sometimes (especially in an old-fashioned British accent) it can sound like ɪ. Examples: very /ˈveri/, create /kriˈeɪt/, previous /ˈpri:viəs/, abilityˈbɪlɪti/.

əl

əl means that the consonant l is pronounced as a separate syllable (the syllabic l, which sounds like a vowel), or that there is a short ə sound before it. Examples: little /ˈlɪtəl/, uncle /ˈʌŋkəl/.

Instead of the əl symbol, some dictionaries use an l with a small vertical line underneath, or simply l, as in /ˈlɪtl/.

ən

ən means that the consonant n is pronounced as a separate syllable (the syllabic n, which sounds like a vowel), or that there is a short ə sound before it. Examples: written /ˈrɪtən/, listen /ˈlɪsən/.

Instead of the ən symbol, some dictionaries use an n with a small vertical line underneath, or simply n, as in /ˈrɪtn/.

Does this chart list all the sounds that you can hear in British and American English?

No. This page contains symbols used in phonetic transcriptions in modern dictionaries for English learners. It does not list all the possible sounds in American or British English.

For example, this page does not list the regular t (heard in this pronunciation of letter) and the flap t (heard in this one) with separate symbols. It groups them under a single symbol: t. (In other words, it groups a number of similar sounds under a single phoneme, for simplicity. To understand how sounds are grouped into phonemes, read the article on phonemic transcription.)

So this page actually lists phonemes (groups of sounds), not individual sounds. Each symbol in the chart can correspond to many different (but similar) sounds, depending on the word and the speaker’s accent.

Take the phoneme p in the above chart. It occurs in the phonemic transcriptions of pin /pɪn/ and spin /spɪn/. In pin, this phoneme is pronounced with aspiration (breathing). This “aspirated p” sound has its own special symbol in the IPA: pʰ. In spin, the phoneme is pronounced “normally”; this “normal p” sound is represented by p in the IPA. So the p phoneme represents two sounds: p and pʰ. (This can be confusing, because p can mean both the p phoneme and the p sound.)

国际音标中的[p]实际上代表两个音素:p pʰ

aspiration[7AspE5reiFEn]n.渴望; 志气, 抱负(for; after)【医】(从体腔中)吸出,吸入,【语】发送气音, 送气音(a+spir+ation

a-=ad-,表“朝向”,相当于英语中的to

spir表“呼吸”,请复习spirit, inspire, inspiration, perspire, perspiration, conspire

请抽空看看下面的视频:

请参考《【视频】你不知道的英文发音——气音、闪音、断音(一个美国人用流利的汉语教英语发音)

我非常同意麦克老师的看法:台湾人的气音太多,太over

实际上,大陆人的气音也太多,太over。搞得美国人不知道您在说什么,很多都要猜呀猜!

 

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